February 25, 2020

Benjamin Franklin, “Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America”:

“Savages we call them, because their Manners differ from ours, which we think the Perfection of Civility; they think the same of theirs.

“Perhaps, if we could examine the Manners of different Nations with Impartiality, we should find no People so rude, as to be without any Rules of Politeness; nor any so polite, as not to have some Remains of Rudeness. The Indian Men, when young, are Hunters and Warriors; when old, Counsellors; for all their Government is by Counsel of the Sages; there is no Force, there are no Prisons, no Officers to compel Obedience, or inflict Punishment. Hence they generally study Oratory, the best Speaker having the most influence. The Indian Women till the Ground, dress the Food, nurse and bring up the Children, and preserve and hand down to Posterity the Memory of Public Transactions. These Employments of Men and Women are accounted natural and honourable. Having few artificial Wants, they have an abundance of Leisure for Improvement by Conversation. Our laborious Manner of Life, compared with theirs, they esteem slavish and base; and the Learning, on which we value ourselves, they regard as frivolous and useless. An Instance of this occurred at the Treaty of Lancaster, in Pennsylvania, anno 1744, between the Government of Virginia and the Six Nations. After the principal Business was settled, the Commissioners from Virginia acquainted the Indians by a Speech that there was a Williamsburg College, with a Fund for Education Indian youth; and that, if Six Nations would send down half a dozen of their young Lads to that College, the Government would take care that they should be well provided for, and instructed in all the Learning of the White People. It is one of the Indian Rules of Politeness not to answer a public Proposition the same day that it is made; they think it would be treating it as a light manner, and that they show it Respect by taking time to consider it, as of a Matter important. They therefor deferr’d their Answer till the Day following; when their Speaker began, by expressing their deep Sense of the kindness of the Virginia Government, in making them that Offer; ‘for we know,’ says he, ‘that you highly esteem the kind of Learning taught in those Colleges, and that the Maintenance of our young Men, while with you, would be very expensive to you. We are convinc’d, therefore, that you mean to do us Good by your Proposal; and we thank you heartily. But you, who are wise, must know that different Nations have different Conceptions of things; and you will therefore not take it amiss, if our Ideas of this kind of Education happen not to be the same with yours. We have had some Experience of it; Several of our young People were formerly brought up at the Colleges of the Northern Provinces; they were instructed in all your Sciences; but, when they came back to us, they were bad Runners, ignorant of every means of living in the Woods, unable to bear either Cold or Hunger, knew neither how to build a Cabin, take a Deer, or kill an Enemy, spoke our language imperfectly, were therefore neither fit for Hunters, Warriors, nor Counsellors; they were totally good for nothing. We are however not the less oblig’d by your kind Offer, tho’ we decline accepting it; and, to show our grateful Sense of it, if the Gentlemen of Virginia will send us a Dozen of their Sons, we will take great Care of their Education, instruct them in all we know, and make Men of them.”

Jandt, Fred E. 2007. An Introduction to Intercultural Communication. Identities in a Global Community. Sage Publications: Thousand Oaks/London/New Delhi, 74-75.

February 26, 2020

“…the practice of Vietnamese ancestor veneration is clearly idolatrous, because the ancestor worshipers consider their dead ancestors deities who can be appeased and pleased, bless and curse. When praying to the dead ancestors, the ancestor worshipers believe in their power. When offering things to the dead ancestors, they believe that the dead ancestors can somehow accept the offering and bless them.”

Nguyen, Tin 2016. “The Impact of Buddhism on Ancestor Veneration in Vietnam: Harmless Cross-Cultural Assimilation or Dark Spiritual Influence?” in Seeking the Unseen. Spiritual Realities in the Buddhist World. Ed. Paul H. De Neui. Seanet Series, Vol. 12. William Carey Library: Pasadena, 126.